International Brigades

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Spanish Civil War

Francisco Franco (1892—1975) Spanish general and dictator, head of state 1939–75

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Review: Antifascism and Memory in East Germany: Remembering the International Brigades, 1945-1989

Josie Mclellan. Antifascism and Memory in East Germany: Remembering the International Brigades 1945-1989. (Oxford Historical Monographs.) New York: Clarendon Press of Oxford University Press. 2004. Pp. xii, 228. $99.00

PHILIPPS, Tracy (1890 - 1959), late The Rifle Brigade; Secretary-General of International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (World HQ, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Brussels); Vice-President, the Hakluyt Soc., 1947–51, and 1952–58; Council, Church of England Council on For. Relations; (Brit. Mem.) Internat. Commission of Belgian Research Institute of African National Parks

EVANS, Murland de Grasse (1874 - 1946), Major, late 5th London Brigade, RFA; Staff Lieut (1st class) 1915; Member of the International Commission for the purchase of supplies for the Allies, 1916–17; Member of the Royal Institution; Member of the Shipwright’s Company; Rector of Tittleshall with Godwick and Wellingham since 1940; one of HM’s Lieutenants for the City of London; Order of the Medjidieh, 2nd Class, of Takovo (Serbia), and of St Stanislas; sometime a member of the firm of Donald Currie and Co., Managers of the Union Castle Mail Steamship Company, Ltd; inaugurated the first All-British Steamship Service round Africa, 1910

OLIVER, Thomas (1853 - 1942), DL Northumberland; JP for city and county Newcastle-upon-Tyne; with aid of Local Committee raised in 1914 the Tyneside Scottish Brigade (20th-23rd Battalions Northumberland Fusiliers); Consulting Physician, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle; Ex-President of University of Durham College of Medicine, Newcastle; Knight of Grace Order St John of Jerusalem, 1924; Chevalier Legion of Honour, 1929; gold medal Ministry of Public Assistance, France, 1924; late Professor of Physiology, Durham; Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Durham; late Medical Expert, Dangerous Trades Committee, Home Office; Hon. President, International Congress of Accidents and Industrial Diseases, Geneva, 1931


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International groups of volunteers in the Spanish Civil War. They were largely communist, on the side of the republic against Franco. At no time were there more than 20,000 in the Brigades. They fought mainly in the defence of Madrid (1936) and in the battle of the River Ebro (1938).

Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945) — World History.

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