A combination of multiple disciplines focused upon marketing goods and services across geographical boundaries, also entering foreign markets, sustaining marketing and sales efforts within foreign countries, and co-ordinating marketing activities in multiple countries and regions. Each practitioner faces a hierarchy: global, international, regional, and local and the intriguing interplay between them. International marketing is one of the more problematic areas: striving for global, regional, and local relevance and balance as well as economies of scale and brand. Segmentation is particularly difficult: are customers to be segmented on a country-by-country basis? Products—can they be standardized for international markets or customized and adapted to each geographical market? The nature and methods of international marketing will also vary greatly depending on whether the company is addressing industrial or consumer products or services. Often international marketing moves by degrees to become global marketing, by tracking the space of international expansion of the overall company and its activities: this can begin with small-scale exporting and develop into full overseas acquisitions. Indeed, the task of the marketer relative to international expansion has become even more complex, because, as the level and scale of overseas expansion grows, the marketing becomes increasingly dependent upon a network of agents, alliances, collaborations, suppliers, sometimes joint venture partners, sometimes full acquisitions.