Queen of Spain (1833–70). The daughter of Ferdinand VII, her accession was contended by her uncle, Don Carlos, and this led to the Carlist Wars that raged until 1839. Her reign, after two unpopular regencies, was a succession of personal scandals, governmental changes, and conflicts between political factions. Isabella finally fled to France after an insurrection (1868), and was deposed. The crown, offered by the new constitutional Cortes to five successive candidates, was accepted by the sixth, the Duke of Aosta (1845–90), the second son of Victor Emanuel I of Italy. As Amadeus I he ruled from 1871 to 1873, when he abdicated and the first Spanish republic was declared.
Subjects: World History.