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‘youths’, ‘youth’, of military age. When a Roman boy adopted the togavirilis, usually at 14, he became a iuvenis. At 17 those intending to follow an equestrian or senatorial career started the military service which was a normal preliminary. Iuvenes of 14–17 years of age who were of equestrian rank (including the sons of senators) served at Rome their tīrocinium, a preparation for military service. This institution originated in the Roman republic but was reorganized by Augustus, to invigorate the youth of the upper classes at Rome, an important part of the imperial ideology. Two factors interested Augustus in the youth: concern to educate future generations in traditional Roman ways and offer them a model, and esp. his desire to recall military aspects of the equestrian order. They practised physical exercises and riding, paraded at great festivals, and held their own games.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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