Nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Russian Muslim intellectual movement, inspired by Ismail Bey Gasprinksi, that developed in response to colonial hegemony and the modern age. Sought to reform education, raise the quality of life for Muslims, improve their economic and technical competitiveness, and restore something of the power, wealth, and dignity gradually lost over the previous decades and centuries. Began with Sufi brotherhoods stressing the inner awakening and moral reformation of the individual, and intellecuals reassessing the accepted traditions of Islamic civiliation. Both promoted renewal and a better future by authenticating and implementing fundamental traditions of the early Muslim community. Sought to empower women and grant them a more central status and a greater role in society.