Association of Indian Ulama. Established in New Delhi at the Khilafat Movement conference (1919). Supported a united India and opposed partition into India and Pakistan. Many of its members were associated with the Deoband school. Its main contribution to Indo-Muslim thought is the theory of composite nationalism, in which nations can be created by various factors such as religion, race, homeland, and language. According to this theory, India is a nation despite its religious diversity. The organization is a rare historical case in which an association of traditional Muslim religious scholars has bestowed legitimacy upon the policies of a non-Muslim, secular government, born out of conflict with the generally acknowledged leadership of their own community.