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In modern Arabic, jamiyyah refers to an assembly, society, or association, and can be used to describe a broad range of literary, charitable, religious, and political groups and international organizations (e.g., Jamiat al-Umam, the League of Nations; Jamiat al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin, the Muslim Brotherhood, etc.). In Persian and Urdu, the term anjuman is often the functional equivalent of the Arabic jamiyyah and likewise refers to religio-political, educational, and literary associations. In Arabic-speaking societies, the term hizb has often been used to designate a political party or organization, with the more fluid term jamiyyah referring to a wider variety of voluntary associations and fora.

Subjects: Islam.

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