(b Brünn, Vienna, 1889; d Vienna, 1976).
Austrian bass‐baritone. Began career as operetta cond., Zurich 1913; singing début Zurich 1917 (Lothario in Thomas's Mignon). Munich Opera 1919–21 at Strauss's invitation; Vienna 1921, remaining as leading bar. until 1953, singing 150 roles. Salzburg Fest. début 1922 (title‐role in Don Giovanni, cond. Strauss), singing there frequently until 1959. Created The Man in Schoenberg's Die glückliche Hand, Vienna 1924, and Mandryka in Arabella, Dresden 1933 and CG 1934. Temporary dir., Vienna State opera 1945. After retirement was prod. at Vienna Volksoper and teacher at Acad.