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1. The son of Ahaziah of Judah who reigned for forty years from about 836 bce. Under the watchful care of Jehoiada, the high priest, Joash renewed the covenant with Yahweh (2 Kgs. 11: 17) and extirpated Baalism. He was forced to surrender much treasure in the Temple to the Syrians, and eventually was murdered in a household conspiracy. According to the Chronicler (2 Chron. 24: 20–22) this was because Joash had ordered the outspoken Zechariah to be stoned, a crime referred to in Luke 11: 51.

2. King of Israel, 801–785 bce, who defeated Benhadad of Aram and recovered several towns, as Elisha had predicted (2 Kgs. 13: 14–19). He also defeated Amaziah of Judah (2 Kgs. 14: 8–14), which the Chronicler in a late narrative embroiders: Amaziah had wickedly toyed with the gods of Edom (2 Chron. 25: 20).

Subjects: Biblical Studies.

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