King of Portugal (1816–26). The son of Maria I and Peter III, he took over the control of the government in 1792 from his mother, who had become insane, and assumed the title of regent in 1799. A repressive monarch, he was submissive to Napoleon, who nevertheless forced him into exile in Brazil in 1807. In 1816 he was recognized as King of Portugal but continued to live in Brazil until 1822, when he returned to accept the role of a “constitutional monarch”. In the same year he overcame a rebellion by his son Dom Miguel. In 1825 he recognized his other son, Dom Pedro, as emperor of an independent Brazil.
Subjects: World History.