JICs or Whitley Councils were a product of the Whitley Report of 1918. They were industry-level joint boards of employers and trade union representatives, which were to form the basis of a cooperative system of industrial government. As such, their intended functions included collective bargaining but also joint consultation over the modernization of their respective industries. Seventy-four JICs were established between 1918 and 1920 but most were short-lived and those which survived and continue to exist today primarily act as forums for the negotiation of basic terms and conditions within public services and mature industries. [See Whitleyism.]
Subjects: Human Resource Management.