Is the process of joint rule-making by employers, trade unions, and other workplace representatives through collective bargaining and codetermination. Employment rules developed in this way may be either substantive or procedural. Substantive rules set the terms of the employment relationship (e.g. rates of pay, hours of work, and working practices) whilst procedural rules govern the behaviour of the parties to the relationship (managers, workers, and trade union representatives) by specifying how particular issues (e.g. discipline, disputes, grievances, harassment, redundancies, and regrading) should be handled. Joint rule-making of this kind can be contrasted with unilateral regulation, where employers or trade unions alone make employment rules, and with legal regulation, where employment rules are framed in statute and case law.
Subjects: Human Resource Management.