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jūjūkai


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(Jap.; Chin., shih chung chieh). A Sino-Japanese Buddhist term meaning ‘ten heavy precepts’. The term occurs in both exoteric and esoteric contexts.

1 Within exoteric teachings, this refers to the first ten of the so-called ‘Bodhisattva precepts’ contained in the Brahmajāla Sūtra (Chin., Fan wang ching, Taishō 1484), which were intended to parallel the four pārājika-dharma offences (or ‘offences entailing defeat’) of the monastic Vinaya. These were opposed to the 48 ‘light offences’ that followed. The ten are: (1) not to kill; (2) not to steal; (3) not to engage in illicit sex; (4) not to lie; (5) not to trade in intoxicants; (6) not to make accusations against other Buddhists; (7) not to boast of oneself while slandering others; (8) not to withhold donations from the Saṃgha or slander others who make donations; (9) not to harbour anger without confessing it; and (10) not to slander the three jewels.

(1) not to kill; (2) not to steal; (3) not to engage in illicit sex; (4) not to lie; (5) not to trade in intoxicants; (6) not to make accusations against other Buddhists; (7) not to boast of oneself while slandering others; (8) not to withhold donations from the Saṃgha or slander others who make donations; (9) not to harbour anger without confessing it; and (10) not to slander the three jewels.

2 Within the esoteric tradition, masters drew the ‘ten heavy precepts’ from the ninth and seventeenth fascicles of the Commentary on the Mahāvairocana Sūtra. (Taishō 1796). These are: (1) not to abandon the jewel of the Buddha; (2) not to abandon the jewel of the Dharma; (3) not to abandon the jewel of the Saṃgha; (4) not to abandon the thought of enlightenment (bodhicitta); (5) not to slander the teachings and scriptures of the three vehicles; (6) not to be stingy in conferring all teachings; (7) not to give rise to false views; (8) not to obstruct others from developing the mind of enlightenment; (9) not to give teachings inappropriate to the recipient's capacities; and (10) not to give out things unbeneficial to all beings. Sometimes, masters might confer a similar set of esoteric precepts, drawn from the Wu-wei san-tsang ch'an-yao (Taishō 917), instead.

(1) not to abandon the jewel of the Buddha; (2) not to abandon the jewel of the Dharma; (3) not to abandon the jewel of the Saṃgha; (4) not to abandon the thought of enlightenment (bodhicitta); (5) not to slander the teachings and scriptures of the three vehicles; (6) not to be stingy in conferring all teachings; (7) not to give rise to false views; (8) not to obstruct others from developing the mind of enlightenment; (9) not to give teachings inappropriate to the recipient's capacities; and (10) not to give out things unbeneficial to all beings. Sometimes, masters might confer a similar set of esoteric precepts, drawn from the Wu-wei san-tsang ch'an-yao (Taishō 917), instead.

Subjects: Buddhism.


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