Democracy, equity, diversity, growth, and sustainability are indispensable to the creation of just cities (Fainstein (2005) Urb. Affairs Rev. 41): ‘I did not attempt a justification for choosing these values but simply assumed agreement on them.’ These are problematic: ‘illiberal majorities can make democracy indifferent to minority rights; the high cost of achieving equity [can create] resentment…diversity can lead to social breakdown; and growth…benefits most those who already have the most. Sustainability may diminish growth’ (Fainstein (2006) Lecture on the Just City). She later writes, ‘if the city is composed of diverse communities, conflict arises over whose definition of justice should prevail’ (‘The Resurgent City’). ‘Ethical demands for the cultural recognition of different groups now require that questions of the good life be addressed alongside deontological questions of morality and rights to create meaningful social justice’ (Shields (2000) Distinktion, 4).
http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/resurgentCity/Papers/susanfainstein.pdf Susan Fainstein's ‘The Resurgent City’.
web.mit.edu/cis/jerusalem2050. MIT's ‘Just Jerusalem’.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.