Early Arctic coastal communities living on Kodiak Island, the Alaska peninsula, and Cook Inlet in North America in the period 500 bc to ad 1100. They were descendants of the Ocean Bay Tradition, but more sedentary, with extensive living sites marked by middens which contain hearths and storage pits. Hunting included birds, whales, fish, and shellfish. The material culture of these groups is rich and embraces both ground and chipped stone tools, bone points and harpoons, and fishing equipment. Personal ornaments are also abundant. Skulls interpreted as trophy heads occur, with features modelled in clay and inset with artificial bone eyes.