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Pāli term meaning ‘working ground’ and denoting a meditation subject used as a means of entering the trances (jhānas; Skt., dhyāna). A list of 40 such topics is found in the Visuddhimagga. These include 10 kasiṇas.10 repulsive (asubha) objects, 10 recollections (anussati), 4 Brahma-vihāras.4 immaterial spheres (arūpāyatana), perception of the repulsive nature of food, and analysis of the four elements. Topics from this list are allocated to the student by the meditation teacher depending on the student's personality, paying particular attention to any negative tendencies that need correction.

Subjects: Buddhism.

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