Painter. An abstract expressionist, he numbered among the first Americans to explore the abstract potential of surrealism. Intricately detailed, organic forms in predominately acidic hues writhe, seeming to separate and merge, across the surface of Emotional Seasons (Whitney Museum, 1942). He also made evocative shadow boxes in this period. Born in Warren, Minnesota, in 1932 he began his training at the St. Paul School of Art, where he adopted a cubist-inflected modernism. In the mid-1930s he worked for a federal art project before moving in 1937 to Chicago. There he studied with László Moholy-Nagy and Alexander Archipenko at the New Bauhaus (now the Illinois Institute of Technology's Institute of Design) and joined the American Abstract Artists. After working during the following summer with Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, he moved to New York. He became particularly friendly with William Baziotes and associated with the group that formed in the early 1940s around Roberto Matta. In 1946 he settled permanently in Ann Arbor, where he taught at the University of Michigan for many years. Although his New York reputation suffered from his geographical remove, he continued to paint strong abstract work.