Leader of Darul Islam movement in West Java, Indonesia. Active in the struggle to liberate Java from the Dutch in 1947. Founder of the Suffah Institute in West Java, which combined a traditional Islamic school with a center for political indoctrination and military training, producing a mystical, militant interpretation of Islam. Proposed an Islamic Indonesian state based on the Quran and headed by an elected imam. Refused to accept the 1948 truce between the Dutch and Indonesia. Declared himself imam of the Islamic provincial government, resulting in his trial and execution for armed revolt.