A successor state to Genghis Khan's Golden Horde, centered in the city of Kazan, located in present-day Tatarstan on the Volga River. Muslim Turkic culture and literature flourished after its founding (1438 or 1445). By the early sixteenth century the Crimean Khanate was actively interfering in Kazan affairs. Kazan had been an important mercantile center, but as relations with Muscovy worsened, the latter moved its commercial activities to deprive the khanate of revenue. Kazan was conquered in 1552; much of the population was resettled with Orthodox Christian settlers. Numerous campaigns followed to convert and assimilate the local Muslims.