Predominantly ethnic Malay state in the northeast of peninsular Malaysia, bordering the majority Malay Muslim provinces of southern Thailand. Historically noted for its pondok (Muslim religious schools) and ulama. Ceremonially headed by a sultan, but executive powers lie with an elected state government. Kelantan is the political locus of the Partai Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS), which has ruled the state since 1959, losing in 1978, regaining through 1990 and 1999 elections. PAS aims to establish an Islamic state in Kelantan, enforcing Islamic law, in opposition to the United Malays National Organization's (UMNO) nationalist policy of Islamization at the federal level.