(b. Potsdam, New York, 22 Dec. 1856; d. St Paul, Minnesota, 21 Dec. 1937)
US; Secretary of State 1925–9 Kellogg was brought up in Minnesota, where he practised as a lawyer. He was a Republican, but broke with the party established in 1912 to support Theodore Roosevelt for the presidency. He was counsel for the government in its fight against trusts and was successful in the case which led to the break-up of the Standard Oil Trust. In 1916 he was elected Republican Senator for Minnesota. After defeat in 1922, he held a number of government appointments, including ambassador to Britain. He served as Secretary of State for the duration (1925–9) of Coolidge's presidency. His lack of initiative in that post made him, according to many observers, an appropriate colleague for the laid-back President. His main achievement was the Kellogg–Briand peace pact (1928) in which countries repudiated war as an instrument for settling disputes. The initiative for this ‘outlawing of war’ lay with the French Foreign Minister. Although it gained Kellogg a share of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929 it made no provision for punishing aggressors and proved irrelevant in the storms of the next decade. From 1930 to 1935 he served as a member of the Court of Justice at the Hague.
Subjects: Politics — Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.