Neolithic communities occupying the area east of the Caspian Sea through to the upper Tobal River catchment in southern Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan in the 4th and 3rd millennia bc. In the early stages these communities relied on hunting and gathering for their subsistence base, but later they became involved with stock‐breeding and animal husbandry. The flint industry was essentially of Mesolithic derivation, microlith‐based. Pottery consists of large bag‐shaped vessels with pointed bases, the outer surfaces being decorated with short incisions arranged in rows and sometimes forming patterns. Succeeded by the Afanasievo Culture.