An independent Nubian kingdom or city‐state of the early 2nd millennium bc, based at the site of Kerma near the third cataract of the River Nile in modern Sudan. One of the states of Kush, the Kerma kingdom reached its height around 1700 bc following a contraction of the Egyptian civilization during the 13th Dynasty. Heavily involved in long‐distance trade, it accumulated considerable wealth. Kerma rulers were buried under huge barrows up to 80 m across. The Kerma kingdom ended with the Egyptian reconquest of Nubia during the 18th Dynasty.