(b London, 1924).
Amer. scholar and critic. Prof. of mus., Univ. of Calif. 1974–88, having previously been on staff 1951–71. Prof. of mus. Oxford Univ. 1971–4. Books incl. Opera as Drama (1956, 2nd edn. 1989, in which Tosca is described as ‘a shabby little shocker’), The Beethoven Quartets (1967), Contemplating Music (Eng. title Musicology) (1985), and The Art of Fugue: Bach's Fugues for Keyboard, 1715–1750 (2006).