Sufi order known for the practice of periodic retreat. Derives its name from this practice. Originated in Central Asia and entered the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century; by the sixteenth century it had become the most widespread Sufi order in the empire. Stressed a combination of knowledge and practice, and required symbolically tying the heart of the disciple to that of the master so that the relationship between the two would be stronger than that between father and son. Also emphasized silence, vigil, participation in dhikr (collective prayer), and communal recital of wird al-sattar (a fifteenth-century composition that is the center of Khalwati ritual). Revived in the seventeenth century in Egypt, it became the dominant order in Egypt in the eighteenth century, holding this status for eighty years. Accommodated both leading scholars and common people.
See also Rahmani Tariqah; Sammani Tariqah