Also known as Khayr al-Din Pasha. Tunisian Islamic modernist and grand vizier under Abd al-Hamid II. Prime minister of Tunisia (1873). Introduced economic and administrative reforms to address the country's financial crisis. Appointed grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1878) but was dismissed shortly thereafter for his support of parliamentary government. One of the early Muslim thinkers to become concerned with the decline of the community and the means to revive it. His book Aqwam al-Maslaik fi Marifat Ahwal al-Mamalik advocated constitutional government, the parliamentary system, and modernization of the educational system. Founded Sadiqi College (1875), which educated generations of Tunisia's modernist elite.