Concretions of calcium salt and uric acid or oxalic acid that form irregularly shaped stones in the kidney. Kidney stones can cause excruciating pain and obstruct the passage of urine. If they present problems, they are usually surgically removed or broken down with ultrasound, but they sometimes pass out of the body spontaneously. Those prone to developing kidney stones should ensure that they drink adequate amounts of water, especially before, during, and after physical exertion. Excessive amounts of protein in the diet can lead to high levels of calcium and increase the risk of developing kidney stones. Body-builders in particular should be aware of this risk. It has been suggested that high intakes of vitamin C cause kidney stones, but this suggestion has been hotly disputed by some nutritionists.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.