Lionel, duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III, was appointed the king's lieutenant in Ireland in 1361. In 1366 he summoned a parliament at Kilkenny, which passed a number of statutes intended to buttress the position of the English. They were not to use the Irish language, or intermarry with the Irish; they were not to sell horses or armour to the Irish; they were forbidden to play hurling but told to practise archery. The statutes, though frequently repeated, did not prevent the Anglo‐Irish from becoming Irish‐speaking.
Subjects: European History.