A chemical effect that depends on reaction rate rather than on thermodynamics. For example, diamond is thermodynamically less stable than graphite; its apparent stability depends on the vanishingly slow rate at which it is converted. Overvoltage in electrolytic cells is another example of a kinetic effect. Kinetic isotope effects are changes in reaction rates produced by isotope substitution. For example, if the slow step in a chemical reaction is the breaking of a C–H bond, the rate for the deuterated compound would be slightly lower because of the lower vibrational frequency of the C–D bond.
Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.