(b. 27 Mar. 1886, d. 1 Dec. 1934).
Russian Communist revolutionaryBorn in Urzhum in the Vyatka province, he moved to St Petersburg, where he became an effective Bolshevik organizer in the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917. He took part in the Russian Civil War, and was an important influence in the Bolshevik victory in the northern Caucasus. He became leader of the Communist Party in Azerbaijan. He helped to create the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist republic in 1922, one of the first four republics to form the USSR. He became a close ally in Stalin's brutal quest for power against the Old Bolsheviks (former followers of Lenin), and in 1926 was made head of the Communist Party in Leningrad and north‐west Russia. His eloquence and authority soon aroused Stalin's distrust, and he was shot by a minor party official. His murder, which was possibly ordered by Stalin himself, resulted in the execution of hundreds of Leningrad citizens and the deportation of thousands more, and triggered the Great Purge.
Subjects: Politics — Contemporary History (Post 1945).