(b Vienna, 1890; d Zurich, 1956).
Austrian‐born (Argentinian cit. 1938) conductor. Cond., Darmstadt court orch. 1912–18, Wuppertal 1919–21, Düsseldorf 1921, Mannheim 1922–3. Berlin début 1923 (Fidelio). Gen. mus. dir. Berlin State Opera 1923–34, one of its most brilliant periods, incl. Janáček's Jenůfa, 1924, and f.p. of Wozzeck, 1925 (after, it is said, 137 rehearsals). Amer. début 1930 with NYP‐SO. Resigned post 1934 over Hindemith controversy with Nazis and their ban on Lulu. Left Ger. 1934 for S. Amer. Salzburg Fest. 1935. Cond. Buenos Aires 1936–49, Amsterdam 1933–8. British concert début 1935. Début CG 1938, working there regularly 1950–3, cond. f. Eng. stage p. of Wozzeck (1952). It. operatic début, Florence 1951. Vienna début 1951. Returned to post at Berlin State Opera 1955, but resigned because of political interference before taking it up.