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According to Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra, five defilements or impurities (avidyā—ignorance, asmitā—‘I-am-ness’, rāga—attachment, dveṣa—aversion, abhiniveṣa—fear of extinction), which both give rise to and are formed by impure or painful states of mind (vṛttis), and so perpetuate an individual's suffering and karmic bondage. Avidyā is thought to engender the other four.

Subjects: Buddhism.

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