martyr. Raymond Kolbe was a Pole; he took the name Maximilian on joining the Franciscans in 1910. In 1922 he set up a magazine to promote Christian teaching and continued publishing after the German occupation of Poland in 1939. He was arrested and sent to Auschwitz in 1941. Here he voluntarily took the place of a young man chosen for death by starvation in reprisal for an attempted escape. Feast day, 14 Aug.