Turkish intellectual. A disciple of Ziya Gokalp. Taught at Istanbul University 1913–43 and was internationally renowned for his scholarship on Turkish history and literature. Founded the Institute of Turcology in 1924 and stressed Turkish cultural connections with Central Asia. Elected to the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1935. Along with Celal Bayar, Adnan Menderes, and Refik Koraltan, founded the Democratic Party in 1946. Served as foreign minister 1950–56 and resigned from the Democratic Party the following year because of the Menderes government's undemocratic practices.