(b Amsterdam, 19 June 1815; d Chicago, 9 Mar. 1872).
Dutch-born Canadian painter. He studied in Düsseldorf, went to New York c.1835, served for a few years in the US army, then from 1840 spent most of his career in Canada (mainly in Montreal and Quebec), although he also had periods in Europe and the USA. His pictures of the Indians, French-Canadian life, and the landscape, done in a colourful, detailed, and often anecdotal style, proved highly popular, and he has been much imitated and forged.