(b St Petersburg, 9 Apr. 1893; d Moscow, 23 Dec. 1978)
Russian/Soviet dancer, director, and writer. She studied at the Imperial Theatre School, Moscow with Tikhomirov and graduated into the Bolshoi Ballet in 1910. With her virtuoso technique and dramatic gifts she became one of Gorsky's leading ballerinas, outstanding in roles such as Swanilda and Kitri. In 1921 she danced with Pavlova's company but was considered too powerful a rival and left, dancing with Mordkin in Moscow in 1923. In 1925 she rejoined the Bolshoi where she remained until 1948. At the same time she toured widely giving concert performances and in 1929 founded the Moscow Art Ballet which performed chamber versions of popular ballets. She attempted to employ Stanislavsky's teaching methods in her productions and in 1939 the company became part of the Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko Theatre. She created roles in several ballets including the stepmother in Zakharov's Cinderella (1945). In 1926 she began writing on ballet and was an active journalist until the end of her life. She was author of My Notes (Moscow, 1930) and director of Bolshoi Theatre Museum from 1955 to 1963. She was made Honoured Arts Worker of the Russian Federation in 1951.