(b Vienna, 1902; d Geneva, 1974). Austrian conductor. Cond. at Vienna Volksoper 1921–4; Dortmund 1925–6; Karlsruhe 1926–33; Vienna State Opera 1933–8; Belgrade Opera 1938–9. Salzburg Fest. début 1935. Banned by Nazis from conducting, 1939–45. Cond. first opera perf. in Vienna after war in 1945, playing major part in restoring Vienna Opera's reputation 1945–50. Re-opened Salzburg Fest. 1946 (Don Giovanni). Guest cond. Eng. orchs. (Hallé, etc.) from 1947. Débuts: CG 1947 (with Vienna co.), CG Royal Opera 1963; NY Met 1966. Cond.-in-chief LSO 1950–4; Buffalo PO 1954–63; S. Francisco SO 1963–70.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music in Oxford Reference.