Boer (Afrikaner) statesman and devout Calvinist. Kruger spent most of his life trying to escape British rule. As a boy he accompanied his parents on the Great Trek away from Britain's Cape Colony. He was present at the signing of the Sand River convention in 1852 and was a founder of the South African Republic (Transvaal) in 1856. When Britain annexed the republic in 1877, he led the resistance to British administration which culminated in the first Anglo‐Boer War (1880–1). His diplomacy resulted in two conventions (Pretoria 1881 and London 1884) which recognized the internal autonomy of the Transvaal and in 1883 he became president of the republic. Renewed British designs on the Transvaal led to the second Anglo‐Boer War (1899–1902). The elderly Kruger sought help in Europe and died there in 1904.
Subjects: British History.