Disbelief. A significant concept in Islamic thought, the word kufr or one of its derivatives appears in the Quran 482 times. Also means “ingratitude,” the willful refusal to appreciate the benefits that God has bestowed. Modern reform and revival movements vest the concept with new significance: current Muslim beliefs and practices have been so corrupted from true Islam that they constitute shirk (idolatry) or jahiliyyah (ignorance). Premodern reformers tended to see kufr in popular Islam, including Sufi practices; some modern reformers see the pervasive influence of the West as a cause of kufr.