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Duchy of Kurland


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House of Kettler

House of Biron

House of Saxony

House of Biron

Berkis, A. V., The Reign of Duke James in Courland, 1638–1682 (Lincoln, 1960).Bilmanis, A., A History of Latvia (Westport, 1951).

1562–1587

Gotthard Kettler (master of the Livonian Order 1559; duke of Kurland as a vassal of the Polish crown 1562)

1587–1616

William (son; deposed, died 1640)

1587–1642

Frederick (brother)

1642–1682

James (son of William; regent 1638–42)

1682–1698

Frederick Casimir (son)

1698–1711

Frederick William (son)

1731–1737

Ferdinand (son of James; regent 1711–31)

1737–1741

Ernest John Biron (deposed; rule by ducal council 1741–59)

1759–1763

Charles (son of Frederick Augustus II, elector of Saxony; deposed, died 1796)

1763–1769

Ernest John (restored; abdicated, died 1772)

1769–1795

Peter (son; deposed, died 1800; union of Kurland with Russia)

Subjects: History.


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