(b St Petersburg, 1900; d London, 1995). Russ.-born conductor (Amer. cit. 1944). Early cond. engagements with Berlin PO, 1921–4. Mus. dir. Stuttgart PO 1924–33, during which time he cond. much ballet in Eur. and toured with Anna Pavlova 1928–31. Cond. ballet at Salzburg Fest. 1931 and 1932. Cond. Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo 1933–42. Chief cond. Kansas City PO 1943–8, Houston SO 1948–54. Joint cond. Liverpool PO 1955–7. Returned to Leningrad and Moscow as guest cond. 1966. Second wife was Amer. flautist Elaine Shaffer.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music in Oxford Reference.