Russian field-marshal. He distinguished himself in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–12), bringing Bessarabia into Russia. He commanded the Russian armies in the wars against Napoleon and was forced to retreat after the defeat of Borodino (7 September 1812). Kutuzov's decision to disperse in the face of the advancing grande armée undermined Napoleon's plans for a swift victory, and forced him to retreat from Moscow before the severe Russian winter.
Subjects: World History — Military History.