Dutch Calvinist theologian and politician. In 1879 he founded the Anti-Revolutionary Party with a view to transforming the orthodox Calvinist sector of the population into a political force; to this end he also founded the Free University in Amsterdam (1880). In 1886 he led a secession from the Dutch Reformed Church. In his Stone Lectures at Princeton (published in England under the title Calvinism, 1932), he set out his view of Calvinism as a way of life satisfying all contemporary needs and emphasized the notion of ‘common grace’. See also Netherlands, Christianity in.