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Henry II (1133—1189) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou


Hadrian I (772—795)

Gerald of Wales (1146—1223) author and ecclesiastic

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c. 1155–60.

The authenticity of this papal bull, granted by Adrian IV and recognizing Henry II as lord of Ireland, has been much debated. The balance of scholarly opinion finds in its favour, but there is, in any case, little doubt that the papacy supported Henry's pretensions. Alexander III, Adrian's successor, praised Henry's attempt to subjugate ‘this barbarous and uncouth race which is ignorant of divine law’.

Subjects: European History — British History.

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