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Embraces the personal qualities, behaviours, styles, and decisions of a leader. A common distinction drawn in studies of leadership is that between ‘transactional’ and ‘transformational’ styles. Transactional leaders clarify the task requirements of their subordinates and ensure they are rewarded for appropriate behaviour. In the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) developed by Bass in the 1980s, transactional leadership is measured by the extent to which leaders provide rewards that are contingent on effective performance and manage by exception, so that work methods are not changed provided performance goals are met. Transformational leaders, in contrast, articulate a vision or mission and challenge their followers by providing a personal example. In the MLQ, transformational leadership has three components: charisma, individual consideration for followers, and intellectual stimulation by encouraging subordinates to question, reason and innovate.

Subjects: Social Sciences.

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