(b Vienna, 1912; d Zurich, 1993). Austrian-born conductor (Amer. cit. 1942). Rehearsal pianist for Weber's choir 1932–4. Ass. cond. to Bruno Walter and Toscanini at Salzburg Fest. 1934–7. Opera cond. Bologna 1936; ass. cond. NY Met from 1937 (début 1938 in Die Walküre), succeeded Bodanzky as chief cond. of Ger. repertory 1939–43. Cond. Cleveland Orch. 1943–4; Rochester PO 1947–55. Mus. dir., NY City Opera 1956–7. Cond. NY Met 1957–62; Boston SO 1962–9; prin. cond. W. Berlin Radio SO 1978–80.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music in Oxford Reference.