Late Neolithic (post‐LBK) communities of the 4th millennium bc living in western Hungary, parts of Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Named after the type‐site near Szekszard in western Hungary excavated by M. Wozinszky in the 1880s and found to comprise a settlement and adjoining cemetery of 90 inhumations. Many regional variations of the Lengyel have been identified, but they are also linked to the Tisza Culture of the Hungarian Plain, and these connections may be responsible for the introduction of painted pottery and the occasional use of copper items. There are also links with the Rössen Culture.
Two branches of the Lengyel are commonly recognized: the Painted Lengyel, defined by the presence of white, red, and yellow crusted wares dating to the early 4th millennium; and the Unpainted Lengyel, defined by the presence of knobbed and incised pottery dating to the second half of the 4th millennium bc.
The culture is characterized by pottery in a variety of forms, among them bowls, small amphorae, biconical vessels, and pedestalled bowls. Settlements include open sites as well as some large ditched enclosures such as Hluboke Mašûky. All have trapezoidal timber‐framed houses. Burials are mainly contracted inhumations in flat cemeteries or within settlements.