André Le Nôtre

(1613—1700) French landscape gardener

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Creative designer of formal gardens in C17 France, his greatest project was the Park at Versailles, with fountains, canals, avenues, and parterres (1661–87). His work for Louis XIV was enormously influential throughout Europe. In 1657 he was appointed Contrôleur Général des Bâtiments, Jardins, Tapisseries, et Manufactures de France after he had begun work on the design of the gardens at Vaux-le-Vicomte (laid out 1656–61) for Nicolas Fouquet (1651–80). For the newly restored King Charles II (1660–85) of Great Britain and Ireland he designed the park at Greenwich (1662—much decayed). He carried out works at Chantilly (1663–88), St-Germain-en-Laye (1663–73), and the Tuileries, Paris. The gardens at Clagny (1674–6), Maintenon (1674–8), Meudon (1654 and 1679–82), the Palais Royal (1674), St-Cloud (1665–78), and Sceaux (1673–7), were also his work. In 1698 he designed a garden at Windsor, Berks., for King William III (1689–1702). His ideas and the essential principles of his designs were recorded by Antoine Joseph Dézallier d'Argenville (1680–1765) in his La Théorie et la pratique du jardinage (1709), the most important treatise on the formal French garden published in C18: it was translated into English and German, and went into several editions, thereby disseminating the principles of French garden design throughout the civilized world.

W. H. Adams (1979);H. Fox (1962);Ganay (1952);Hazlehurst (1980);Hazlehurst (ed.) (1974);Jeannel (1985);Laird (1992);Mariage et al. (1999);Roudaut (2000);V. J. Scully & Baubion-Mackler (1992);A. Weiss (1995)

Subjects: Architecture.

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