novelist and critic, was born in Berlin and brought as a child to the U.S. Among his many writings, Upstream (1922) and Mid-Channel (1929) are autobiographical treatments of the problems of Jews in America. His novels include The Broken Snare (1908), Don Juan (1923), Roman Summer (1927), The Case of Mr. Crump (1926), The Island Within (1928), Stephen Escott (1930), Trumpet of Jubilee (1937), For Ever Wilt Thou Love (1939), Renegade (1942), Breathe Upon These (1944), Anniversary (1948), and In a Summer Season (1955). Expression in America (1932) studies the American spirit in literature, using Freudian analysis to attack the Puritan tradition. Besides many translations, his works include critical studies, among them The Modern Drama (1915), The Drama and the Stage (1922), The Creative Life (1924), and Cities and Men (1927), marked by idealistic individualism. Sociological studies of Jews, advocating Zionism, include Israel (1925), The Answer: The Jew and the World (1939), and The American Jew (1950). Haven (1940), written with his wife, presents matched diaries of a honeymoon.