Early Neolithic forest zone communities forming part of the Volga–Oka cultures of the 4th millennium bc in the upper Volga and Oka rivers and their tributaries around Moscow in western Russia. In origin, the Lialovo Culture results from local later Mesolithic groups adopting the use of pottery and characteristically Neolithic stone artefacts from groups further to the south. The basic economy of hunting, fishing, and food gathering, and the settlement pattern that focused on lake margins and river valley locations, remained unchanged. Lialovo pottery vessels are bag‐shaped with pointed bases. They are heavily decorated using the pit and comb technique, usually with horizontal rows of pits or patterns made using pits and comb impressions. Three main phases have been recognized on the basis of decorative patterns: early styles which almost exclusively use round pits as motifs; the middle style using comb impressions and pits together; and the late style which is predominantly decorated using comb impressions. It is possible, however, that these different styles of decoration represent spatial variations between contemporary groups rather than successive phases.